Third-generation programming languages (3GL) like COBOL or PL/1 are seen as outdated languages for “has-been” developers, and do not interest new ones anymore (there were even predictions saying that COBOL was going to die in mid-term.) These new developers prefer more modern technologies, like J2EE or .NET, and, worryingly, educational organizations provide few learning opportunities for 3GLs.
We’re covering Java frameworks and their impact on application quality in an upcoming webinar, Java Applications and Coffee: The Variations are Endless, on Jan 29. As part of that, I wanted to share some insights along the lines of what we might discuss during the webinar. But first, what is a software framework?
A software framework is an abstraction in which software provides generic functionality. It is universal and can be reused by different applications.
Nowadays, it seems impossible to start the development of an application without thinking about frameworks. Some of them appear as a de-facto standards used in most applications, such as log4j with its implementation in other languages.
For other frameworks, it can be more difficult to choose. For example if we look at ORM frameworks in J2EE technology, you can see that there are more and more new frameworks.
And there are many more presentation frameworks.
The problem with this list of frameworks — that are supposed to simplify the coding of an application — is that you must master the framework itself in addition to java. And it’s not as easy as it seems. Take, for example, all the books written just for the Hibernate framework:
When analyzing several applications that use hibernate, I often found that persistent classes do not implement hashCode() and/or equals() for example
You have to override the equals() and hashCode() methods if you:
intend to put instances of persistent classes in a Set (the recommended way to represent many valued associations); and
intend to use reattachment of detached instances.
What does that mean? It means that Hibernate guarantees if there is a unique instance for each row of the database inside a session. But whenever you work with objects in detached state, and especially if you test them for equality (usually in hash-based collections), you need to supply your own implementation of the equals() and hashCode() methods for your persistent classes.
Nevertheless, it’s possible to build a complex application with identity (default) equals as long as you exercise discipline when dealing with detached objects from different sessions. If this concept of equality isn’t what you want, you must override equals() in your persistent classes. But this method requires discipline and it’s easy to make a mistake.
Thanks to CAST’s solution, you can check that this rule is enforced but many other one related to robustness, security and performances.
CAST’s solution considers J2EE application not as a single Java[/JSP] application, but provides rules for the most common frameworks such as Struts 1 & 2, Tiles, JSF, Spring, Hibernate, JPA compatible frameworks, and EJB. CAST’s product takes into account java annotations, XML files, and of course Java language to check these rules.
In addition, it can be extended to manage other frameworks.
As we have seen, implementing a framework is not so easy
It is obvious that frameworks simplify the development; it saves you from reinventing the wheel. And they usually come with a community built in. The bigger the community, the better the framework will be in terms of stability and completeness.
But as we’ve seen, frameworks come with their own rules that must be followed to avoid mistakes that can come up later in the development lifecycle and are difficult to diagnose. This is why it is important to have a static analyzer check that the frameworks are following best practices.
Again, if you’re interested in learning more about the resiliency of Java frameworks, be sure to check out our most recent CRASH report, which compared the quality and stability of Java frameworks for enterprise applications. Keep in mind, this is the only available repository in the world of real business software that has been subjected to this level of scrutiny. And for a deeper dive into the research results, be sure to register for our Jan. 29 webinar, Java Applications and Coffee: The Variations are Endless, which covers the full findings of the research.